The U.N.-appointed Independent Inquiry Commit­tee into the United Nations Oil-for-Food Programme (IIC) released its first Interim Report[1] on February 3, 2005, and its Second Interim Report[2] on March 29, 2005. U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan set up the commit­tee in April 2004, following calls for a Security Council

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Nile Gardiner

Nile Gardiner, Ph.D., is Fellow in Anglo–Ameri­can Security Policy in the Douglas and Sarah Allison Center for Foreign Policy Studies, a division of the Kathryn and Shelby Cullom Davis Institute for Inter­national Studies, at The Heritage Foundation. (

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